From the point of view of the German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, the advantage of these agreements, in which Germany did not participate, was the rapprochement of Great Britain with the tripartite alliance of Germany, Italy and Austria-Hungary. The Bismarck agreement succeeded in bringing the United Kingdom closer to the Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria – Hungary, Italy), without the German Empire itself would become a member of the Mediterranean Agreement. However, the agreement quickly lost its importance, with Britain and Russia making each other`s interests heard. After allowing the British to alienate by the Kruger telegram, William II broke the Mediterranean Agreement in 1896. Bismarck`s transition to the Mediterranean agreements must also be seen with regard to the German-Russian reinsurance contract. In the secret protocol to the reinsurance contract, Bismarck promised Russia to support its expansion efforts. By mediating the Mediterranean agreement, Bismarck did not de jure violate the reinsurance contract, but the spirit of the additional protocol. 28 Hajo, Holborn, Germany and Turkey (Berlin: Deutsche Verlagsgesellschaft for Politik und Geschichte, 1926), p. 1Google Scholar. See ibid., p.

46-49, for the excellent overview of German-Turkish relations between 1887 and 1889. Although it was published in 1926, Holborn`s study still has value because the author had access to previously unpublished documents from the Department of Foreign Affairs and unpublished documents from Radowitz. Holborn emphasizes the theme of “disinterest” in Bismarck`s middle East policy. Although Bismarck sought to maintain friendly relations with the sultan and gain an influential position in Constantinople, Bismarck, according to Holborn, never withdrew his initial view that Germany was an “unbiased” observer in the affairs of the Netherlands. By the late 1880s, however, Bismarck was more inclined than before to occasionally use his influence in Constantinople for immediate tactical purposes. See ibid., 69. See also Rich`s concise summary of Bismarck`s Near Eastern Politics in his Friedrich von Holstein, Volume I, p. 175 and 214-216. Rich clearly explains how Bismarck tried to balance Russian power in the Middle East without involving Germany. “In doing so,” Rich writes, “Bismarck has painsskedly freed Germany from its obligations in Eastern Europe, because Germany was not interested in this region and felt the main need to face the threat of France…

It was not a simple policy, but it temporarily kept Russia out of the arms of France and preserved peace in Europe. Ibid., p.