29-30 September 1938: Germany, Italy, Great Britain and France sign the Munich Agreement by which Czechoslovakia must cede its border and defensive regions (the so-called Sudetenland) to Nazi Germany. German troops occupied these territories between 1 and 10 October 1938. The Czechoslovakians were appalled by the colony of Munich. They were not invited to the conference and felt betrayed by the British and French governments. Many Czechs and Slovaks describe the Munich agreement as a Munich diktat (Czech: Mnichovska diktéta); in Slovak: Mnechovska diktét). The phrase “Munich betrayal” (Czech: Mnichovska zrada; In Slovak: Mnechovska zrada) is also used because Czechoslovakia`s military alliance with France proved useless. This is also reflected in the fact that the French government, in particular, had considered that Czechoslovakia would be held responsible for any European war that would result if the Czechoslovak Republic defended itself by force against German abuses. In 1938, the Soviet Union was allied with France and Czechoslovakia. In September 1939, the Soviets were in every respect a fighter with Nazi Germany, due to Stalin`s fears that a second Munich agreement with the Soviet Union would replace Czechoslovakia. Thus, the agreement indirectly contributed to the outbreak of war in 1939. [60] On 29 and 30 September 1938, an emergency meeting of the major European powers was held in Munich, without Czechoslovakia or the Soviet Union, allied with France and Czechoslovakia. An agreement was quickly reached on Hitler`s terms.

It was signed by the leaders of Germany, France, Great Britain and Italy. On the military front, the Sudetenland was of strategic importance to Czechoslovakia, as most of its border defences were there to protect themselves from a German attack. The agreement between the four powers was signed with low intensity in the context of an undeclared German-Czechoslovak war, which had begun on 17 September 1938. Meanwhile, after 23 September 1938, Poland transferred its military units to the common border with Czechoslovakia. [2] Czechoslovakia bowed to diplomatic pressure from France and Great Britain and decided on 30 September to cede Germany to Munich conditions. Fearing a possible loss of Zaolzie to Germany, Poland issued an ultimatum to Zaolzie, with a majority of Polish ethnic groups, which Germany had accepted in advance and accepted Czechoslovakia on 1 October. [3] The Munich quotation in foreign policy debates is also common in the 21st century. [107] During negotiations on the Iran nuclear deal by Secretary of State John Kerry, a Republican representative from Texas called the negotiations “worse than Munich.” In a speech in France, Kerry himself referred to Munich for military action in Syria: “This is our munich moment.” [108] Meanwhile, the British government has asked Benea to request a mediator. As he did not want to sever his government`s relations with Western Europe, the heirs reluctantly agreed. The British appointed Lord Runciman, the former Liberal cabinet minister, who arrived in Prague on 3 August to convince Benes to accept an acceptable plan for the Sudeten Germans. [23] On 20 July, Bonnet informed the Czechoslovakian ambassador in Paris that France, while publicly declaring its support for the Czechoslovakian negotiations, was not prepared to go to war on the Sudetenland. [23] In August, the German press was full of stories of Czechoslovakian atrocities against the Sudeten Germans, with the intention of forcing the West to put pressure on the Czechoslovakians to make concessions.

[24] Hitler hoped that the Czechoslovaks would refuse and that the West would feel morally justified in abandoning the Czechoslovaks to their fate. [25] In August, Germany sent 750,000 troops along the border with Czechoslovakia, officially as part of military maneuvers. [9] [25] On September 4 or 5,[23] Erbe presented the fourth plan, which met almost all of the requirements of the agreement.